Drivers in Edinburgh face the worst traffic congestion in the UK, according to new figures.
Analysis by sat-nav manufacturer TomTom suggested that a typical rush hour journey in the Scottish capital takes 40% longer compared with free-flow conditions.
London is the second-worst city for congestion with an average extra travel time of 37%, followed by Bournemouth, Hull and Belfast with 34% each.
On average, UK motorists driving in peak hours spend an extra five-and-a-half days stuck in traffic each year.
Middlesbrough was found to be the least congested UK town or city analysed by TomTom.
A 10-year plan to further improve traffic flow in the town – including a new “park and ride” railway station – was announced in December 2018.
Edinburgh was ranked 27th in the world in terms of congestion.
Mumbai took top spot, with drivers facing an average of 65% extra travel time in the Indian city.
Heiko Schilling, head of navigation at TomTom, said: “The UK was home to nine cities in the top 100 most congested cities globally.
“Overall congestion is up by an average of 1% (year on year) in the UK – a mild increase but an increase nonetheless. Only Manchester, Glasgow and Portsmouth have seen congestion levels improve.
“These results show that there’s still a lot of work to be done.”
He added: “Advances in journey planning, autonomous vehicles and car sharing schemes all promise to alleviate congestion in Edinburgh and other cities in the UK and around the world.”